Supplier of Last Resort: An overview of its Implementation in ERRA Member States and Representative Countries in the EU

This Paper examines the concept of an energy Supplier of Last Resort (“SLR”).  In particular, it looks at the definitions of SLR and how the SLR concept is being recognized by the EU and across various states of ERRA Members, the European Union and United States.  In this context, the Paper explores how issues surrounding market liberalization and security of supply are implicated by the SLR concept, and offers potential avenues for addressing these implications.

This Paper consists of:  (1) this Introduction; (2) an Analysis; (3) Tables summarizing the Answers to the questionnaire; and (4) a copy of the questionnaire (attached as Appendix 1).

The Analysis discusses:

  • various definitions of SLR;
  • how the concepts that fall into these definitions are currently addressed in general, e.g., in the EU and United States;
  • how these concepts are currently addressed among ERRA Member states, based on the information provided in the questionnaires; and
  • issues surrounding how the SLR concept is defined and implemented, and suggestions as to how to address these issues going forward.


Bjork, Isabel; Connors, Catherine

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